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Pressure from fast moving electrons keeps these stars from collapsing. The more massive the core, the denser the white dwarf that is formed.
Thus, the smaller a white dwarf is in diameter, the larger it is in mass! These paradoxical stars are very common - our own Sun will be a white dwarf billions of years from now.
White dwarfs are intrinsically very faint because they are so small and, lacking a source of energy production, they fade into oblivion as they gradually cool down.
This fate awaits only those stars with a mass up to about 1. Above that mass, electron pressure cannot support the core against further collapse.
Such stars suffer a different fate as described below. White Dwarfs May Become Novae If a white dwarf forms in a binary or multiple star system, it may experience a more eventful demise as a nova.
Nova is Latin for "new" - novae were once thought to be new stars. Today, we understand that they are in fact, very old stars - white dwarfs. If a white dwarf is close enough to a companion star, its gravity may drag matter - mostly hydrogen - from the outer layers of that star onto itself, building up its surface layer.
When enough hydrogen has accumulated on the surface, a burst of nuclear fusion occurs, causing the white dwarf to brighten substantially and expel the remaining material.
Within a few days, the glow subsides and the cycle starts again. Sometimes, particularly massive white dwarfs those near the 1.
Supernovae Leave Behind Neutron Stars or Black Holes Main sequence stars over eight solar masses are destined to die in a titanic explosion called a supernova.
A supernova is not merely a bigger nova. In a nova, only the star's surface explodes. In a supernova, the star's core collapses and then explodes.
In massive stars, a complex series of nuclear reactions leads to the production of iron in the core.
Having achieved iron, the star has wrung all the energy it can out of nuclear fusion - fusion reactions that form elements heavier than iron actually consume energy rather than produce it.
The star no longer has any way to support its own mass, and the iron core collapses. In just a matter of seconds the core shrinks from roughly miles across to just a dozen, and the temperature spikes billion degrees or more.
The outer layers of the star initially begin to collapse along with the core, but rebound with the enormous release of energy and are thrown violently outward.
Supernovae release an almost unimaginable amount of energy. For a period of days to weeks, a supernova may outshine an entire galaxy.
Likewise, all the naturally occurring elements and a rich array of subatomic particles are produced in these explosions. On average, a supernova explosion occurs about once every hundred years in the typical galaxy.
About 25 to 50 supernovae are discovered each year in other galaxies, but most are too far away to be seen without a telescope.
Neutron Stars If the collapsing stellar core at the center of a supernova contains between about 1. Neutron stars are incredibly dense - similar to the density of an atomic nucleus.
Because it contains so much mass packed into such a small volume, the gravitation at the surface of a neutron star is immense.
Like the White Dwarf stars above, if a neutron star forms in a multiple star system it can accrete gas by stripping it off any nearby companions.
The Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer has captured telltale X-Ray emissions of gas swirling just a few miles from the surface of a neutron star.
Neutron stars also have powerful magnetic fields which can accelerate atomic particles around its magnetic poles producing powerful beams of radiation.
Those beams sweep around like massive searchlight beams as the star rotates. Since there are so many stars in the universe, the IAU uses a different system for newfound stars.
Most consist of an abbreviation that stands for either the type of star or a catalog that lists information about the star, followed by a group of symbols.
The J reveals that a coordinate system known as J is being used, while the and are coordinates similar to the latitude and longitude codes used on Earth.
In recent years, the IAU formalized several names for stars amid calls from the astronomical community to include the public in their naming process.
The IAU formalized 14 star names in the "Name ExoWorlds" contest , taking suggestions from science and astronomy clubs around the world.
Then in , the IAU approved star names , mostly taking cues from antiquity in making its decision. The goal was to reduce variations in star names and also spelling "Formalhaut", for example, had 30 recorded variations.
However, the long-standing name "Alpha Centauri" — referring to a famous star system with planets just four light years from Earth — was replaced with Rigel Kentaurus.
A star develops from a giant, slowly rotating cloud that is made up entirely or almost entirely of hydrogen and helium.
Due to its own gravitational pull, the cloud behind to collapse inward, and as it shrinks, it spins more and more quickly, with the outer parts becoming a disk while the innermost parts become a roughly spherical clump.
According to NASA, this collapsing material grows hotter and denser, forming a ball-shaped protostar. When the heat and pressure in the protostar reaches about 1.
Nuclear fusion converts a small amount of the mass of these atoms into extraordinary amounts of energy — for instance, 1 gram of mass converted entirely to energy would be equal to an explosion of roughly 22, tons of TNT.
The life cycles of stars follow patterns based mostly on their initial mass. These include intermediate-mass stars such as the sun, with half to eight times the mass of the sun, high-mass stars that are more than eight solar masses, and low-mass stars a tenth to half a solar mass in size.
The greater a star's mass, the shorter its lifespan generally is. Objects smaller than a tenth of a solar mass do not have enough gravitational pull to ignite nuclear fusion — some might become failed stars known as brown dwarfs.
An intermediate-mass star begins with a cloud that takes about , years to collapse into a protostar with a surface temperature of about 6, F 3, C.
After hydrogen fusion starts, the result is a T-Tauri star , a variable star that fluctuates in brightness. This star continues to collapse for roughly 10 million years until its expansion due to energy generated by nuclear fusion is balanced by its contraction from gravity, after which point it becomes a main-sequence star that gets all its energy from hydrogen fusion in its core.
The greater the mass of such a star, the more quickly it will use its hydrogen fuel and the shorter it stays on the main sequence.
After all the hydrogen in the core is fused into helium, the star changes rapidly — without nuclear radiation to resist it, gravity immediately crushes matter down into the star's core, quickly heating the star.
This causes the star's outer layers to expand enormously and to cool and glow red as they do so, rendering the star a red giant.
Helium starts fusing together in the core, and once the helium is gone, the core contracts and becomes hotter, once more expanding the star but making it bluer and brighter than before, blowing away its outermost layers.
After the expanding shells of gas fade, the remaining core is left, a white dwarf that consists mostly of carbon and oxygen with an initial temperature of roughly , degrees F , degrees C.
Since white dwarves have no fuel left for fusion, they grow cooler and cooler over billions of years to become black dwarves too faint to detect.
Our sun should leave the main sequence in about 5 billion years. A high-mass star forms and dies quickly. These stars form from protostars in just 10, to , years.
While on the main sequence, they are hot and blue, some 1, to 1 million times as luminous as the sun and are roughly 10 times wider.
When they leave the main sequence, they become a bright red supergiant, and eventually become hot enough to fuse carbon into heavier elements.
After some 10, years of such fusion, the result is an iron core roughly 3, miles wide 6, km , and since any more fusion would consume energy instead of liberating it, the star is doomed, as its nuclear radiation can no longer resist the force of gravity.
When a star reaches a mass of more than 1. The result is a supernova. Gravity causes the core to collapse, making the core temperature rise to nearly 18 billion degrees F 10 billion degrees C , breaking the iron down into neutrons and neutrinos.
In about one second, the core shrinks to about six miles 10 km wide and rebounds just like a rubber ball that has been squeezed, sending a shock wave through the star that causes fusion to occur in the outlying layers.
The star then explodes in a so-called Type II supernova. If the remaining stellar core was less than roughly three solar masses large, it becomes a neutron star made up nearly entirely of neutrons, and rotating neutron stars that beam out detectable radio pulses are known as pulsars.
If the stellar core was larger than about three solar masses, no known force can support it against its own gravitational pull, and it collapses to form a black hole.
A low-mass star uses hydrogen fuel so sluggishly that they can shine as main-sequence stars for billion to 1 trillion years — since the universe is only about Still, astronomers calculate these stars, known as red dwarfs , will never fuse anything but hydrogen, which means they will never become red giants.
Instead, they should eventually just cool to become white dwarfs and then black dwarves. Although our solar system only has one star, most stars like our sun are not solitary, but are binaries where two stars orbit each other, or multiples involving even more stars.